Category: Gynaecology

Sexual Health And Contraception – Not Just A Youngster’s Game

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Too often, sexual health is seen as a young person’s problem. They get the talks about the birds and the bees in school and they are the ones that are constantly reminded to seek advice about STDs, STIs and any other concerns they may have regarding sexual relationships and wellness.

But we all know twenty-something-year-olds are not the only ones having fun. So we all need to be just as involved in this conversation! Sexual health and contraception are not just about preventing pregnancy – it is also about ensuring we know how to avoid infections and keep ourselves safe.

In this blog post, we’re going to explore all of these topics and highlight the importance of honesty and breaking the stigma around this topic with all generations!

Keep It Wrapped

In almost every case, condoms will provide some protection against the risks of STIs during sex. However, let’s take a look at why people need to make careful considerations about their sexual health and contraception.

Sexual health and contraception

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Everyone that wants to, should be entitled to really great sex. Being safe doesn’t mean being boring in any way shape or form.

When a person’s penis enters another person’s vagina, there will usually be a risk of pregnancy. This is usually the reason why people use protection such as condoms or female contraception like the pill or the coil.

But sex isn’t just about making babies. 

Many of us crave intimacy with another person and nothing should stop us from doing what gets us excited and makes us feel good. 

However, while people who might be less likely to fall pregnant or worry about this risk due to menopause or other bodily changes, there is still the risk of contracting an STI such as:

  • Chlamydia
  • Herpes
  • Warts
  • HIV
  • Syphilis
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Hepatitis C

You can also still contract these infections if the person doesn’t ejaculate or if the penis is only shallowly inserted.

Furthermore, anal sex poses an even higher chance of spreading these infections due to the thin lining of the anus. Similarly, oral sex poses a risk of STIs which also increases if you have cuts or sores around the mouth, genitals or anus.

Viruses and bacteria can be passed through breaks in the skin and it is possible for both the giver and receiver of oral sex to contract an STI.

It is for this reason condoms are strongly recommended with new partners or when engaging with multiple people. You can never be too careful and even in long-term relationships or where someone may be using female contraception, we recommend condoms as a preventative measure for STIs.

Even if your partner tells you ‘it doesn’t feel as good’ – that is no excuse for neglecting your safety. They are thin and created for your protection. Surely not having to worry about contracting something will help you enjoy it even more?

Also, the age-old lie of ‘I’m too big for them’ is another excuse that shouldn’t slide in any relationship. You can get different sizes, styles and brands – there will be one out there you can use! 

(Plus, there are plenty of videos out there proving otherwise – it’s not as hard as you think to get your whole arm inside a standard condom… So tell them not to flatter themselves and wrap it up!)

Of course, you could use the female condom if you’d prefer.

Just Good Vibes…

A lot of people incorporate sex toys into their activities. Whether it be vibrators, dildos or other equipment, this can often be to aid with sexual dysfunction, self-pleasure, and adding something new to your routine, as well as in same-sex relationships or for general pleasure.

Sharing these sex toys poses a risk of spreading STIs and washing after each use and thoroughly is one way of ensuring this does not happen.

Although, you can still use contraception like condoms when engaging in activities using sex toys, which may help to prevent this risk further. 

It is important for sexual health and contraception purposes to keep general hygiene in mind and think twice about using toys with different partners without proper care and cleaning.

Better With Age?

Developing emotional and physical closeness to another person is extremely important for sustained happiness and quality of life. It can also improve mental health by offering a chance to maintain activity and release those all-important ‘happy hormones’ everyone needs.

However, we are aware that for one reason or another, our physical ability to perform and enjoy sex, in the same way, can often decline. 

This may lead to some uncomfortable or embarrassing encounters with partners. Not having the understanding or access to resources that educate us on sexual health and contraception can be a huge reason for this, but many of us will experience it in our lifetime. It is nothing to be ashamed about and you are most definitely not alone!

There are a few things we can do to remain positive and start conversations about these topics that will heat things up once more and allow you to get at it again.

Talk About It!

This may be easier said than done but it is so important to have an open and honest relationship with your partner about any worries or concerns.

Your other half should be the one you feel most comfortable discussing these things with, as they are the person you are sharing these encounters with. 

Also being settled in long-term relationships or marriage doesn’t mean you can’t try something new. But, nor does it mean you are no longer at risk of STIs or other sexual health issues.

Unfortunately, discussing the topic of polyamory or having sex with multiple partners is still taboo, we need to remember that it is a huge part of many people’s lives and a way they can remain satisfied.

For this reason, it is crucial that anyone, of any age, is having honest discussions with new and existing partners about their past and current sexual health.

This includes mentioning STIs, STDs and contraceptive methods where necessary.

It is essential that both partners feel comfortable communicating with each other about sexual activity to ensure a happy and healthy relationship.

Think Further Than 50 Shades of Grey

If approaching conversations about sexual health and contraception head-on feels too daunting, there are plenty of other ways to learn more about it.

Websites, books, and articles like this one are readily available on the internet and in libraries which can help to increase understanding. This is a great way to learn about sexual health and contraception without feeling like you have to put yourself out there.

It’s also part of the reason we write things like this and share our messages on social media. Without these conversations and educational resources, no one will learn and people forget what is a normal part of life.

From Niagra Falls To The Sahara…

Sexual health and contraception

As people approach the menopause, some may start to suffer from falling estrogen levels. Common symptoms associated with this are vaginal dryness and thinning.

As a result, penetrative sex, in particular, can become uncomfortable or even painful. This is when those open and honest conversations are going to be important. You can discuss the use of lubricant or ways in which you may need to reconsider the other person’s sexual health for the benefit of both parties.

There are plenty of fun options that can not only get you your mojo back but can actually improve your sex life. Flavoured lubricants and other products are designed to assist with not only penetrative sex but oral sex too – just don’t forget to keep it water-based if you are using it on top of a condom. (We wouldn’t want any unexpected tears.)

As well as this, sex drive may decrease and other changes to the body may cause low self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Sexual health and contraception do not just mean avoiding infections. We also need to consider mental well-being and our general experience with this part of our lives as people’s bodies change.

But, if you think the menopause might be playing a part in these issues, you could get in touch with our experienced team of specialists. With over 10 years in the field, we understand how personal symptoms can be – differing from patient to patient.

If you need help managing these symptoms or understanding more about how menopause may affect your relationship and personal life, book an appointment today or call our clinic on 01483454016 for more information.

Our clinicians can help with sex drive as well as low mood which may be one of your main culprits in the bedroom!

Feeling Down Because You Can’t Get It Up?

Unfortunately, ageing can come with a few other sexual changes for those where estrogen is not an issue. This can include erectile dysfunction (ED), reduced libido and even difficulty ejaculating.

There are many possible causes for these changes but it is essential to have open conversations with your partner about how you’re feeling and what you’re experiencing.

Again, just as younger people are concerned with having an active but safe sex life, sexual activity, the older you get, should not just be about avoiding infections but also maintaining a healthy and enjoyable relationship.

No Accidents In This House

If you are looking to prevent pregnancy as well as STIs, there are a number of options available to you. 

Many people also use hormonal contraceptives to control unwanted symptoms such as acne, mood swings and painful periods – but it is always recommended that you speak to your GP before trying anything new.

Here are a few of the options currently available. Most of which are available through the NHS.

  • Combined Pill
  • Injection
  • Patch
  • Implant
  • Copper Coil
  • Diaphragm
  • IUS (Hormonal Coil)
  • The Ring
  • Mini Pill
  • Condoms
  • Female Condoms
  • Vasectomy
  • Female Sterilisation
  • Emergency Contraception

GPs, pharmacies and sexual health clinics are the best places to get contraception. As there are so many, it may take a while to find one that is right for you. 

When we get older, people going through menopause may find it harder or impossible to get pregnant, but people producing sperm will continue to do so unless they undertake hormone therapy or have the testes removed.

It is also worth remembering that condoms are the only option that protects against STIs.

Understanding and education surrounding sexual health and contraception are vital in breaking the barriers and stigma we deal with every day.

Stay Safe

We hope this blog has helped start a conversation about something we know can be difficult or embarrassing. It is so important that we break down the barriers surrounding these topics to ensure everyone has access to the resources and support they need throughout life.

Don’t forget to share this article with others and find us on social media for more open and honest discussions where we will answer your questions and share our expertise.

Gynaecological Cancer Awareness: Normal or Not?

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gynaecological cancer awareness month

In the UK, over 22,000 people each year are diagnosed with some form of gynaecological cancer. Many of us don’t even know what the different types are or what we should be looking out for in terms of our own wellness, signs and symptoms.

September is gynaecological cancer awareness month – the perfect opportunity to get educated and join our community of individuals who want to understand more about their own bodies and where they can seek guidance or support should they need it.

Too often, people don’t seek treatment for gynae concerns because they’re embarrassed, don’t know the symptoms or aren’t sure where they can go for help without being turned away or judged. This can be a deadly mistake.

Simply having access to the correct information and a safe space can be life-changing. So please,  keep reading.

Gynaecological Cancer Awareness – The 5 Types

There are five main types of gynae cancer we want you to be aware of. 

Each comes with its own set of symptoms, risks and treatments. With some overlap, it’s incredibly important to be aware of each one and seek medical advice if you are concerned.

Womb Cancer

Also known as endometrial cancer, this is the most common type of gynaecological cancer in the UK with around 9,000 new cases diagnosed each year. It usually affects people over the age of 50 who have been through the menopause. However, we are now seeing higher rates of pre-menopausal people also being affected.

Anyone with a womb could be at risk.

The majority of cases begin in the lining of the womb or endometrium. While the signs may differ from person to person, the most common symptoms include:

  • Bleeding or spotting after menopause
  • Heavy periods that are out of character
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Unusual vaginal discharge (compared to usual)

If you are worried about any of these symptoms, you should contact your GP right away or a specialist consultant or clinic. During your appointment, they may ask you questions about your family medical history and how you feel. It is likely your doctor may also need to do an examination.

We know it can feel embarrassing or uncomfortable, but this is an important process that could be the key to early diagnosis. Having the courage to talk about it and go through the stages may just save a life. You are always within your rights to ask for a particular doctor or chaperone to make the experience a little less intimidating.

Other signs of womb cancer include:

  • A lump or swelling in your pelvis
  • Pain in your pelvis or lower back
  • Pain during sex
  • Blood in your urine

Anyone with a womb is susceptible and that’s why comprehensive gynaecological cancer awareness is so important! This includes women, trans men, non-binary people and intersex people. However, it does mean that you cannot get this type of cancer if you have had a hysterectomy.

Having high oestrogen levels is just one thing that can increase your risk of being diagnosed. Being overweight, having PCOS, diabetes or a family history of cancer are just a few more risk factors that can come into play.

gynaecological cancer awareness month


For more information please visit the NHS website.

Ovarian Cancer

There are many types of ovarian cancer, with the most common being epithelial ovarian cancer. Much like the type that affects the womb, it is often diagnosed in women over the age of 50 and can be difficult to spot as symptoms such as bloating or tummy pain can be mistaken for other health concerns.

When cells in the ovary grow abnormally, it can cause the following symptoms, leading to a diagnosis:

  • Persistent bloating
  • Persistent pelvic & abdominal pain
  • New bowel habits
  • Frequent urination
  • Feeling full more quickly or nauseous when eating
  • Weight loss
  • Back pain


When diagnosed early, it offers the best chance of successful treatment. This is why we believe that not only is gynaecological cancer awareness crucial, but so is access to and education surrounding ovarian cancer screening.

We offer screening at our clinic with Professor Jay Chatterjee. He is one of the top Gynae Oncology specialists in the country – offering a full consultation, transvaginal scan, blood tests and follow-up here at The Surrey Park Clinic.

If abnormalities are found, you may be referred for further treatment by Professor Chatterjee. While cysts and other benign growths can be mistaken for this, it is always worth going through the tests to make sure.

Vulvar Cancer

This is one of the rarest forms, with around 1400 new cases diagnosed in the UK each year. It usually affects women over the age of 60 and the most common symptom is a lump or growth on the vulva which may bleed or itch.

What Is The Vulva?

The vulva is the name given to the external female genitalia. It includes the pubic mound, inner and outer labia (lips), clitoris, urethra and vaginal opening.

gynaecological cancer awareness month


Cancer can develop on any of these parts but is most commonly found on the labia.

Other symptoms may include:

  • Itching or burning sensation around the vulva
  • Changes in colour or texture of the skin
  • Unusual discharge that may have an offensive odour
  • Persistent pain in the pelvic area

A diagnosis is usually made following a biopsy, which involves taking a small sample of tissue from the affected area to be examined under a microscope by a pathologist. The vulva will also be checked for any other abnormal growths.

This is especially important as many symptoms can be confused for common conditions like infections. But as they can suggest something more sinister, it is always important to seek medical advice.

Treatment will depend on the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed but may involve surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy.

Cervical Cancer

Gynaecological cancer awareness can help better our understanding of these scary signs and symptoms. Many people will have heard of this type from receiving vaccinations at school. However, few actually know what it is or what to look out for.

It is caused by changes to the DNA in cells of the cervix, which is the lower part of the womb that opens into the vagina. The most common symptom is abnormal bleeding, which can occur during or after sex, in between periods or after menopause. Other symptoms include:

  • Unusual discharge from the vagina that may have an offensive odour
  • Pain during sex
  • Persistent pain in the pelvic area
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss 
  • Fatigue

Nealy all cancers of this kind are caused by a common sexually transmitted infection called human papillomavirus or HPV for short. The HPV vaccines are offered to young people between the ages of 12 and 13 as this will usually be a window before they become sexually active.

While around 80% of us will come into contact with this infection, it usually clears up without any need for treatment or the concern of higher risk.

Cervical screening, also known as smear tests, are offered to people with a cervix at the age of 25. The NHS currently invites people every 3 years, but we also offer private cervical screening at our clinic in Guildford, Surrey.

We recommend yearly testing, as this can be crucial for early detection and can be the difference between life and death. We know no one particularly likes going to their cervical screening appointment  and it can be an uncomfortable process, however, we do everything we can to ensure you are as relaxed, comfortable and at ease as possible during your visit.

If you’d like to find out more about what happens at a smear test or would like to book an appointment with our GP Dr Alex Standring, you can click here.

gynaecological awareness month

Vaginal Cancer

This is the rarest gynaecological cancer, with only around 400 new cases diagnosed in the UK each year. It usually affects women over the age of 60 and symptoms may include:

  • Abnormal bleeding, which can occur during or after sex, in between periods or after menopause
  • Unusual discharge from the vagina that may have an offensive odour
  • Pain during sex
  • Persistent pain in the pelvic area 
  • A lump or growth in the vagina
  • Itching or burning sensation around the vulva
  • Changes in colour or texture of the skin on the vulva 
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss 
  • Fatigue 

There may be a few things that can increase a person’s risk of developing vaginal cancer.

  • 40% of cases are in people over 75 years old
  • There are many types of HPV that may develop into vaginal cancer
  • History of abnormal cervix or vaginal cells
  • Previous treatment of other gynaecological diseases with radiotherapy
  • Weakened immune system
  • Smoking

Because it is similar to cervical in the sense that many cases will be due to HPV infections, we would always recommend attending your cervical screening (smear test) appointments and encouraging children to undertake the vaccinations at school.

It can grow very slowly and the seriousness usually depends on the size of any cancerous growths. This is why early diagnosis is key. As we mentioned before, waiting three years for cervical screening might not always be the best option, especially if you have a family history of cancers.

If you’re worried about anything we have discussed today or would simply like to get into the habit of more regular screening, get in touch with our team today or book an appointment online. If you have any other questions please don’t hesitate to get in touch.

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Why Is The Pelvic Floor So Important?

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pelvic floor

I’m sure you’ve heard of the pelvic floor. If you’ve had children, you were probably told, in passing, to ‘do your pelvic floor exercises’, maybe without any other instruction or explanation. It’s not just after babies that the pelvic floor is important, however.  Women, and men, can experience pelvic floor issues at any stage in life and it can have a wide range of implications. So let’s look into it a bit further and see why the pelvic floor is so important.

What is it?

The pelvic floor is a group of muscles and connective tissue that attaches to the bottom of your pelvis, like a sling between your legs.  This sling supports your pelvic organs, including your bladder, uterus and rectum. 

The pelvic floor is part of the core muscle system, working closely with your transverse abdominus, multifidus and diaphragm to support your trunk.  This is your ‘core’ and contributes to back stability, postural strength and function.  

What problems can it cause?

Common problems arising from pelvic floor dysfunction are:

  • Stress urinary incontinence – this is the name for leaking pee when you cough or sneeze and is often the reason that mums don’t go trampolining!  The pelvic floor can also be a factor in overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence.


  • Pelvic organ prolapse – this is when your pelvic organs are not supported fully and drop down into your vagina, and can sometimes protrude.  Women typically notice a heaviness in their pelvis on weight bearing activities and may notice a bulge from their vagina. 


  • Sexual dysfunction – this could range from an inability to orgasm to discomfort during penetration to not being able to have sex due to pain.


  • Pelvic pain syndromes – conditions such are vulvodynia, vaginismus and Bladder Pain Syndrome (interstitial cystitis) often have involvement of the pelvic floor muscle complex, which can contribute to pain and dysfunction.  


  • Back pain – core weakness is a common factor in chronic or recurrent back pain. Working on core activation and strength have been shown to help reduce the severity of chronic back pain and reduce the incidence of episodes. 

why the pelvic floor is so important

  • Diastasis rectus abdominus – this is the separation of abdominal msucles, usually due to pregnancy.  The pelvic floor is part of the core, and together they work to support your trunk.  The balance between your core muscles and external abdominals is what helps to improve this issue. 

What can go wrong?

The pelvic floor is a complex system of muscles.  Any muscle in your body needs strength to contract, flexibility to function and the ability to fully relax.  The pelvic floor needs to be able to balance its power and contractibility, with its relaxation and length in order to function comfortably and effectively.  

This muscle system can be weak or inactive.  This could be due to pregnancy, exercise, occupation, weight, age, the list goes on.  If the muscles are weak they will not be able to counteract downward forces through your trunk.  This may lead to bladder or bowel leaking, pelvic organ prolapse or sexual dysfunction (for example, inability to orgasm).  Weakness in the core muscle system can cause or be a factor in lower back pain and perpetuate diastasis rectus abdominus. 

The pelvic floor can also be overactive or shortened. This can be due to overtraining, stress or anxiety, infection, or as part of a trauma response.  Tension in these muscles can cause pain related to urination, sex, or defecation; even sitting down or wearing tight trousers can be problematic for some people. It can contribute to urinary retention or incontinence, overactive bladder, or bladder pain syndrome. Tension or pain in your pelvic floor can also influence the surrounding structures and can be felt in or contribute to hip leg or back pain. 

On examination, it is very routine to find that the pelvic floor muscles are both overactive and weak at the same time. If someone perceives a pelvic floor problem, for example a bit of leaking, the common advice is to ‘do your kegels’. Kegels are essentially strengthening exercises.  The problem with this arises when people don’t know if their pelvic floor is actually weak, how to do an effective pelvic floor contraction and how to relax the muscles in between.  The muscles need strength, but even more important is range (i.e. the ability to fully relax and then fully contract).  Without working on the length and full relaxation in your pelvic floor, you will never get an optimal contraction. 

What to do about it?

The research says that 65% of people who think that they’re doing their pelvic floor exercises correctly are in fact doing it incorrectly.   This may be due to an ineffective contraction (reduced fibre activation or reduced range for example) or it could be that they are working to bear down with their pelvic floor muscles, which is the opposite to what we want to achieve and can make problems worse. 

The only way to find out if you are contracting your pelvic floor correctly is to have an internal vaginal assessment with a specialist Pelvic Health Physiotherapist.  A vaginal assessment is very routine for those of us in the trade.  A pelvic floor examination involves feeling the muscles just on the inside of your vagina – feeling them contract, relax and what happens during a cough.  This should be entirely comfortable and pain-free.  We would also assess for signs of prolapse, in lying but also in standing if necessary.  

NICE Guidelines (NICE 2022) recommend supervised pelvic floor retraining as a first-line treatment for stress or mixed incontinence and for pelvic organ prolapse.  This means assessment and treatment with a specialist Pelvic Health Physiotherapist. 

If pain is your issue, please don’t be put off by talk of internal examinations.  They can be very helpful in diagnosis and treatment but are not imperative.  Pelvic pain issues are very complex and lots of progress can be made ‘hands off’.  It might be something to discuss and revisit during a subsequent appointment.  You are always welcome to say no at any point.

In a nutshell, we all have pelvic floors, and they can impact every aspect of life.  If you think you might have an issue with your pelvic floor, or would just like to check, do something about it and see a Pelvic Health Physio!

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The 5 Gynaecological Cancers you need to be aware of…

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Awareness of the 5 gynaecological cancers is very low despite 21,000 women receiving a diagnosis each year. As with many cancers, early diagnosis is key so it is important women are aware of the signs and symptoms to look out for and to know what’s normal for them.

At The Surrey Park Clinic we offer Well Woman checksCervical Screening and Ovarian Cancer screening. You can find out more about these tests by following the links and you can book these on-line or by calling 01483 454 016. As September is Gynae Cancer Awareness Month, we are offering 10% off our Well Woman and Ovarian Cancer Screening checks for bookings made in September.

Ovarian Cancer

Otherwise known as the silent killer, ovarian cancer is sadly often diagnosed at a late stage which is why awareness of symptoms is critical to ensure this cancer is caught early.

Ovarian cancer affects around 7,500 women a year. It is the abnormal growth and division of cells in the ovary and the tumour can spread to other areas of the abdomen. Recent research has highlighted that ovarian cancer is likely to start in the fallopian tubes.

Symptoms of ovarian cancer:

The main symptoms of ovarian cancer are fairly vague and non-specific but do watch out for:

  • Struggling to eat and feeling full more quickly
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain felt over a period of time
  • A change in bladder habits
  • Post menopausal bleeding

If you have any of these symptoms, please do see your GP or book into to see our consultant gynaecologist. At The Surrey Park Clinic, we offer ovarian cancer screening. Our Consultant Gynaecologist will discuss your medical history, conduct a trans-vaginal scan to assess the ovaries and also do CA125, CEA, Ca19-9 blood tests.

Who is at risk?

  • Women with a family history of Ovarian cancer and or related cancers such as breast, bowel and endometrial cancer
  • Women with an inherited BRCA gene mutation
  • As there is increasing awareness of Ovarian cancer, many women simply wish to have the reassurance of having their ovaries checked, especially if they have a friend who has developed the disease

More information on Ovarian Cancer:

Vulval Cancer

Vulval Cancer fortunately is quite a rare cancer and tends to affect women over 65 years. In order to be vigilant, it is important to know what your vulva “normally” looks like. We advise using a mirror to get to know the appearance of your vulva and check this on a regular basis to see if there are any changes.

Symptoms of Cancer of the Vulva:

  • a persistent itch in the vulva
  • pain, soreness or tenderness in the vulva
  • raised and thickened patches of skin that can be red, white or dark
  • a lump or wart-like growth on the vulva
  • bleeding from the vulva or blood-stained vaginal discharge between periods
  • an open sore in the vulva
  • a burning pain when peeing
  • a mole on the vulva that changes shape or colour

What Causes Vulval Cancer?

The exact cause of vulval cancer is unclear, but the following factors may increase your risk of developing the condition:

  • increasing age
  • vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) – where the cells in the vulva are abnormal and at risk of turning cancerous
  • persistent infection with certain versions of the human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • skin conditions affecting the vulva, such as lichen sclerosus
  • smoking

Our Consultant Gynaecologist, Mr Jay Chatterjee, gives an overview of Vulval Cancer:


Womb/Uterine Cancer

This is the most common gynaecological cancer which affects a woman’s reproductive system. It tends to be more common amongst post-menopausal women.

Symptoms of womb cancer:

  • any abnormal bleeding during your usual cycle
  • any bleeding post menopause

What causes womb cancer?

It is not always clear why womb cancer occurs but there are factors which may increase your risk of developing it. If you have high levels of oestrogen in your body you may have a higher risk. Obesity can create higher levels of oestrogen and there may also be a slight higher risk from long term use of tamoxifen.

Our Consultant Gynaecologist, Mr Jay Chatterjee, shares an overview of womb cancer:


Cervical Cancer

What is Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer is one of the few cancers that is highly preventable. This is because dangerous pre-cancerous cell changes can be picked up in a Cervical screening, and any abnormal cells can be removed before they develop into cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women under 35 years and causes approximately 1,000 deaths per year in the UK. Most cervical cancers are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV).

What Are The Symptoms of Cervical Cancer?

Symptoms include:

  • Vaginal bleeding between periods
  • Bleeding during or after sexual intercourse
  • Bleeding at any time if you are past Menopause
  • Vaginal discharge that smells unpleasant
  • Discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse

How do I Reduce my risk of Cervical Cancer?

Ensuring you are up to date with your Cervical screening appointments are the best way to reduce your risk of Cervical cancer. Research suggests that Cervical screenings (smear test and HPV testing) save around 1,000 lives every year. At The Surrey Park Clinic we offer a cervical screening service – find out more here.

HPV vaccines are also now available. Human papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection by certain types of human papillomavirus. Available HPV vaccines protect against either two, four, or nine types of HPV. All HPV vaccines protect against at least HPV types 16 and 18, which cause the greatest risk of cervical cancer.


Mr Jay Chatterjee gives an overview of Cervical Cancer:


Vaginal Cancer

Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer affecting the vagina, the tube leading from the cervix (neck of the womb) to the vulva.

What are the symptoms of vaginal cancer?

  • vaginal bleeding after the menopause
  • bleeding after sex or pain during sex
  • smelly or bloodstained vaginal discharge
  • bleeding between periods
  • a lump or mass in or at the entrance to the vagina
  • an itch in your vagina that will not go away
  • pain when peeing, or needing to pee a lot

Vaginal cancer is very rare for women under 40 but if you are experiencing symptoms, please do seek medical advice as early diagnosis is key.